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Room and Board and Upper Cumberland Beauty

Area bed and breakfasts offer great escapes, and not far to get there 

Regardless whether you’re a day tripper, globetrotter or local dweller, the Center Hill Lake region offers several B&B options guaranteed to satisfy an urge for respite from your personal grind.

If rest, recreation and perhaps a bit of romance is what you seek, bed and breakfasts can offer an intimate alternative to traditional hotels or motel, and typically with an additional level of luxury and elegance than a cabin rental.

Strangers who stay in a bed and breakfast often get to know one another over coffee in the morning, forming amiable acquaintances and even long-term friendships with fellow travellers.

Are you looking to take in some leisure and charm with your family or familiar spirit? Enjoy the full spectrum of seasonal scenes, color and pastimes our lovely region has to offer!

Dekalb County

Evins Mill
1535 Evins Mill Rd.
Smithville
(615) 269-3740

Smith County

Granville Bed, Breakfast, and Antiques
6800 Granville Hwy
Granville
(931) 653-4511

Butterfly Hollow Bed and Breakfast
28 Bussell Lane
Gordonsville
(615) 784-8551

White County

Miss Eula Mae’s Bed and Breakfast
127 North Main St
Sparta
(844) 522-5924

Warren County

Falcon Manor Bed and Breakfast at Falcon Rest
2645 Faulkner Springs Rd
McMinnville
(931) 668-4444

Bonnie Blue Inn
2317 Old Smithville Rd
McMinnville
(931) 815-3838

Putnam County

Blackberry Bramble Cottage
1580 Blackburn Fork Rd
Cookeville
(931) 260-5762

Saltbox Inn
537 Hutcheson Rd
Cookeville
(931) 510-6787

The Garden Inn
(931) 839-1400
1400 Bee Rock Rd
Monterey

Wilson County

Watermelon Moon Farm
10575 Trousdale Ferry Pike
Lebanon
(615) 444-2356

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Bass on the Fly Well Worth a Try

Think fly angling is just for trout? Think again.

The classic fly fishing scene that usually comes to people’s mind is a big wily trout slurping up bushy little insect imitations looped onto the surface of a cold rushing stream or chilly mountain lake.

But despite the Caney Fork’s prime reputation as a superior Southern trout fishery, it isn’t particularly known for its dry fly action.

Opportunities for casting topwater bugs to surface-feeding rainbows, browns and brook trout do arise from time to time, mostly in the middle and lower portions of the river. But consistently hooking up with fish of substantial size and numbers likely requires focusing your attention on subsurface presentations deep into the swirling tailwater currents.

So what’s an angler gotta do to pick a big splashing fight on a floating fly around here? The answer: Go bassin’.

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Looking to pick a vicious topwater fly fight in Middle Tennessee? Bass is your best bet.

The Center Hill Lake region is brimming with possibilities for bagging behemoth bass species specimens: largemouth, smallmouth, spots and stripers. And all are prone to savage attacks on the surface under the right circumstances.

Topwater bass action tends to be best when the weather’s warm — not too hot or too cold. As bass move shallower in late summer and early fall they often can’t resist what looks like an easy bite of live nourishment twitching on the surface.

One of the keys to fly fishing for trout is “matching the hatch.” That generally means casting adult insects or aquatic larvae that imitate what fish are zeroed in on at a particular time and place on the water. For persnickety trout, even when they are actively feeding on the surface, that can be tricky, complicated and frustrating.

When bass are in a dining mood, however, they’re usually less discerning.

If you see schools of shad skipping across the surface — or bigger fish splashing or sipping on top — there’s a good chance you can entice a bass in the neighborhood to snap at a simulated baitfish, bug or frog offering.

A floating minnow pattern or buoyant popper of similar color and size to running shad will likely elicit a hardy yank on your line.

But bass don’t limit themselves to aquatic creatures. Tasty-looking terrestrial imitations will put big fish in the boat, too. If their attention is focused upwards, bass are often tempted by anything that convincingly resembles a toothsome taste of protein.

“For all of my warm-water guides, a mouse pattern is always a great topwater pattern for both largemouth and smallmouth,” said Jim Mauries, who runs Fly South in Nashville. “Whether you are fishing a farm pond or larger lake or stream, as long as you have a grassy bank, a mouse is probably going to be really, really good.”

The mouse patterns anglers are tying these days “look like they’re going to crawl off the table,” Mauries said. To an opportunistic predator like a bulky bucketmouth or bronzeback, that means fresh meat.

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James Johnsey’s “Tennessee on the Fly” guide service specializes in hooking anglers of all skill levels up with big and bellicose smallmouth bass on Middle Tennessee and Upper Cumberland rivers, lakes and streams.

Mauries grew up fishing in Colorado, but he’s been guiding trips, selling gear and offering fly casting instruction for 20 years in Tennessee. In addition to beginners, he loves to lure both savvy traditional rod-and-reel fishermen and trout junkies into taking up fly angling for bass.

“The conventional guys a lot of times don’t think you can catch bass with a fly rod — or they don’t think it is an effective tool, which is inaccurate,” said Mauries. “Then you have trout snobs who don’t want to chase bass. To them, a fly rod is just for trout.”

Both groups tend to reevaluate their outlook after wrestling a thrashing warm-water bruiser to capitulation on a fly rod, he said.

James Johnsey is another area guide who moved to Tennessee from out West and now lives to fly fishing for all the Volunteer State’s game fish species.

In addition to stalking big trout and smallmouth, Johnsey is keen on targeting the brutish striped bass that meander up the Caney Fork from the Cumberland River.

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WEARIN’ ‘EM OUT: Subduing a king salmon-sized Caney Fork striper can be “pretty insane on a fly rod,” says fishing guide James Johnsey.

“If you get into one of those wolf packs of stripers, it doesn’t really matter what you are going to throw. If you get it near them, they are going to eat it,” he said. “We were catching them up to 40 pounds last year. That’s pretty insane on a fly rod.”

Like Mauries, Johnsey delights in introducing experienced fisherman to the art of fly angling.

“It’s pretty rewarding for somebody who’s had some success on conventional tackle, and understands how to catch fish, to then catch some on a fly rod,” said Johnsey, who spent two decades guiding in Montana and Wyoming before moving back to Tennessee, where he grew up.

“All of our big freshwater species live here,” said Johnsey, whose Fairview-based business is called Tennessee on the Fly. “In one week, I might fish for three different species. It is nice to break it up like that — it certainly keeps it fun.”

And Tennessee fly fishing is “blowing up” right now, which Johnsey said is largely due to people discovering that there’s more to it than just trout angling.

Mauries concurs. And Tennessee’s species diversity ought to, in the future, make it more of a destination fishery than it has already become, he said.

“I think that if you live in Middle Tennessee — or in Tennessee in general — and you limit yourself to one species of fish, then you’re an idiot,” Mauries said. “There are times of year when you have wonderful topwater bite for largemouth, and unbelievable small stream or big river fishing for smallmouth. There is great trout fishing. There is world-class striper fishing here. There are five different species of carp you can catch — and gar and muskie.”

“The nice thing around here is that throughout the year there is always something you can chase with a fly rod,” he said. “That’s our advantage.”

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A Taste of Cumberland Wine Country

DelMonaco Winery and Vineyard in Baxter tempts tourists to toast regional agriculture

Over the last decade, growth in Tennessee agriculture tourism, or “agritourism,” has emerged as a promising, profitable trend for many families relying in whole or part on farm income for their livelihood.

A 2013 University of Tennessee economic survey estimated that farm-based businesses that cater to tourist harvested $34.4 million statewide, and another $54.2 million was generated in local economies as a “multiplier effect” of spending by visitors.delmonacomap

Volunteer State “wine tourism” has particularly flourished.

The number of Tennessee vino-making venues has more than doubled over the last eight years. In 2008, there were about 30 wineries in the state. Today there are about 65, according to the state Department of Agriculture.

“Wine, grapes, grape products and allied industries create employment and new market opportunities in rural communities,” a 2014 study commissioned by the department asserted. “In areas that previously had diminishing farming of tobacco, cotton, and other crops, the planting of grapevines and the creation of wineries is now offering new life. Grape farming is providing employment as is the establishment of new wineries, shops and restaurants springing up in the footprint of these rural communities.”

Barbara DelMonaco, who owns DelMonaco Winery and Vineyard in Putnam County, has witnessed firsthand the industry’s burgeoning potential to prosper since she and her husband, David, planted their first vines 14 years ago.

“Tennessee still has a long way to go to reach its full potential,” she said.

But DelMonaco Winery is doing its best to help Upper Cumberland’s wine industry blossom and develop.

Situated just a few miles off I-40 — an easy detour for travelers thirsting to put interstate traffic in the rearview mirror — DelMonaco is one of seven wineries that make up tasting stations along the Upper Cumberland Wine Trail.

DelMonaco also happens to have taken root right by a working set of railroad tracks. So it periodically serves as the destination depot for a vintage excursion train departing from the Tennessee Central Railway Museum in Nashville. The 10-hour round-trip rides are hugely popular, typically selling out weeks or even months in advance.

A Sip Starts in the Soil

Diane Parks, a winemaker at DelMonaco, takes full advantage of the teachable moments when rail riders from the Music City detrain at the vineyard. It’s a great opportunity to enlighten folks living outside the countryside about the time, talent and tolerance for trial-and-error necessary to coax a crop of grapes out of the ground and into the wine-imbiber’s glass.winetrain

First and foremost, winemaking is an agricultural endeavor, Parks explains.

“A winery is nothing without grapes. The life’s blood of most wineries are its grapes,” she said. “You can make a crappy wine out of really good grapes, but you can’t make a really good wine out of crappy grapes. You really have to manage your vineyard well in order to have good quality grapes — and, in turn, to make good quality wine.”

Tammy Algood, a viticulture marketing specialist for the state, has been studying and helping promote Volunteer State varietals for the better part of 30 years.

It’s gratifying to see the wine industry benefiting from Tennessee’s booming tourism economy, said Algood, precisely because it is “inherently tied to the land.” Tasting-destination wineries represent “a beautiful marriage between the tourist industry and the Tennessee wine and grape industry,” she said

“Grape-growing is farming. And it is beautiful farming,” she said. “This industry is enhancing the visual appeal of Tennessee. If you are going to have a great wine, it started on the vine.”

And often wineries are drawing visitors’ and their vacation-spending into areas both that particularly need it — and might not otherwise enjoy a reputation as a tourist draw, Algood said.

“The topography of the land is very important for grape growing. Unlike a manufacturing facility that can pick up their operations and move to a different county or a different state seeking out tax incentives or a different kind of labor force, an agriculture operation like a vineyard is connected to the land and the local rural economy,” she said.

“You are not typically going to see vineyards in the middle of large cities. You are going to see them where they have land to spread out,” said Algood.

While Tennessee is trailing neighboring states like Missouri, Georgia and Virginia in total number of wineries, wines from here are regularly judged favorably against the best at national and international festivals, she said.

“Each winemaker puts his or her own spin on a particular product,” said Algood. “Tourists that come to Tennessee, particularly from more northern areas, are surprised and pleased to learn that we grow different grapes and as a result have different wines than they are accustomed to.”

“Everybody wants to go home with something from Tennessee, and a bottle of wine is the perfect thing to carry home with you after spending a vacation here,” she said.

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Drive-Ins Still Drawing Audiences of All Ages

Outdoor cinemas featured in Watertown, Sparta and Woodbury

Most kids and adults alike would agree that catching a good flick at a drive-in movie theater is a thoroughly enjoyable way to spend a warm summer night.

Drive-in movies are a uniquely American form of entertainment, and few Americans who’ve ever visited one now and again can’t recall having a pretty good time.

Around the Center Hill Lake region we’re in the happy circumstance of having not one, not two but three drive-ins within leisurely driving distance: The Stardust Drive-In Theater in Watertown, the Sparta Drive-In, and Woodbury’s Moonlite Drive-In.

Barry and Dawn Floyd, along with their three boys, run the Stardust Drive-In Theater in Watertown. Their dual-screen double-feature operation, open seven nights a week between Memorial Day and Labor Day, consistently posts the best attendance numbers in all of Middle Tennessee.

Floyd says Stardust, which opened its gates in 2003, maintains success by keeping with the times, not trying wistfully to relive the past.

“We’re not so much about nostalgia here. The ‘57 Chevys and poodle skirts, that ain’t really us,” he said.

The drive-in concept isn’t new, but the cinematic technology on display is state-of-the-art. Stardust is purely a first-run film venue (although they host one “throw-back night” a year), and that’s a big reason why the cars start lining up at the entrance well before sundown.

In 2013, USA Today rated Stardust among the nation’s ten best drive-ins, lauding its “theater-quality viewing.”

“We’re not running out of a 60-year-old building with no air conditioning and that kind of stuff,” said Floyd, noting that digital projectors can cost $100,000 or more. “The majority of our customers drive 30 or 40 miles to get here. So it is really hard to convince people to drive that far to watch a movie they already own at home”

Filmmaker April Wright, who made the 2013 documentary film “Going Attractions: The Definitive Story of the American Drive-In Movie,” said the resurgence in drive-in popularity over the last decade or so is due both to a new generation of parents seeking “simple family activities to do,” and Hollywood studios “putting out movies that are very drive-in friendly and very family friendly.”

“All these animated and superhero films, they play great at a drive-in,” she said.

Floyd said this year’s summer blockbuster, “Finding Dory,” was exactly the kind of movie that works for a drive-in.

“The drive-in movie business is about two things, movies and weather,” said Floyd. “If the movies are good and the weather is good, it can be a perfect storm of everything being fantastic. If one of those two things aren’t right? Well, owning a drive-in is like planning an outdoor wedding: There is no Plan B.”

Pictured at Top: The Floyd family of Watertown has operated the Stardust Drive-In since 2003. Dawn and Barry are shown with the oldest of their three boys, 16-year-old Christopher.

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Vineyard Serves as Sample of Viable Family Farming

Cellar 53 Winery in Brush Creek promotes local agriculture, protects rural landscape

The newest sipping stopover along the Upper Cumberland Wine Trail is a testament to one family’s commitment to farmland preservation and conserving country lifestyle.

Owned and operated by Scott and Rebecca Paschal, with the help of their three boys, Cellar 53 Winery is notched into the western edge of the Highland Rim in Smith County, just south of I-40’s Exit 254 on Alexandria Highway.

Cellar 53 opened to the public as a walk-through vineyard and winery just last year. But it took root more than a decade ago.

In the early 2000s, Scott and Rebecca shared “a dream to keep the family farm.”

Rebecca Paschal and her husband, Scott, put down Cellar 53's roots more than a decade ago.

Rebecca Paschal and her husband, Scott, put down Cellar 53’s roots more than a decade ago.

So they made arrangements to purchase a 100-acre tract that, while it’d been under family ownership for generations, had earlier been platted for future sproutings of suburban-style houses in lieu of raising crops and livestock.

In order to make a profitable long-term reality of their dearly priced dream, they set about sowing the seeds of a wine-growing operation.

Over the ensuing ten years, their vision blossomed into what is today a winsome venue for sipping homegrown vino and lingering about a vintage landscape that exemplifies Middle Tennessee at its bucolic best.

The idyllic parcel that rears the fruiting vines for their assortment of wines does abut up against a cove of contemporary homes. But that’s where the residential development stops.

Beyond the rolling hedges of Cellar 53’s wine grapes rises a wild and sprawling expanse of thickset timber that’s now buffered against exurban homebuilding.

Visitors to Cellar 53 are invited to stroll the grounds or relax in the tasting room or on the patio behind the pole barn that houses a conference room, commercial kitchen and wine-making vats. Typically, Cellar 53 has ten or so wines for oenophiles to sample.

“I make a lot of dry wines,” said Rebecca. She noted that they also grow all the blackberries for their blackberry wine, which tends to be a customer favorite.

The itinerary for touring Cellar 53 is pretty laid back. “You taste wine, you get educated, you walk through and appreciate the vineyards and the agriculture,” explains Rebecca. “And hopefully you buy a bottle and go home and enjoy it.”

To visit Cellar 53 Winer: From Interstate 40, Take Exit 254. Turn South - toward Alexandria. Go approximately 1.5 miles and turn left onto Poplar Drive - there are two stone pillars at front of the drive. Take the first left onto Oak View East. Head to the rear of the residential development - please drive slowly! cellar53winery.com

To visit Cellar 53 Winery: From Interstate 40, Take Exit 254. Turn South – toward Alexandria. Go approximately 1.5 miles and turn left onto Poplar Drive – there are two stone pillars at front of the drive. Take the first left onto Oak View East. Head to the rear of the residential development – please drive slowly! cellar53winery.com

Over time, the Paschals have come to recognize that a key element of their role in the community and the regional economy is in fact instructional, and maybe even inspirational. Their message to locals and tourists alike is that agriculture remains a viable livelihood for people willing both to work hard and think creatively about how to use their land and develop markets for selling locally grown products.

The Paschals believe wine growing has a particularly robust future in the Volunteer State if its full potential is ever uncorked. “Before the Prohibition Era, Tennessee had 19,000 acres of wine grapes,” said Rebecca. “Now we have 900. So we obviously can grow them here.”

The Tennessee Farm Winegrowers Alliance reports that there are currently about 25 wineries in the state.

“During the late 1800s, vineyards were flourishing in Tennessee, mostly in areas that were believed to be unsuitable for other agricultural uses,” according to TFWA. “At the time, it appeared that grape-growing would become one of Tennessee’s most important cash crops. However, Prohibition all but ended this promise in 1919. It is just within the last quarter of the 20th century that grape growing (and winemaking) has seen a remarkable recovery.”

The Upper Cumberland Wine Train includes eight wineries. Visit uppercumberland.org to learn more.

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Go Deep, Move Often to Catch Daytime Summer Bass on Center Hill

Lake serves up sunlight bite later than people think

When Tennessee’s summer rays are smoldering over Center Hill Lake, a lot of sport fisherman turn nocturnal for the season.

But shunning sunshine to focus all your angling efforts after dark can be a big mistake, says Smithville bass pro Josh Tramel.

If you’re willing to fish deep and keep moving, opportunities to catch pugnacious plumpers will arise, especially in morning shade and along late afternoon shadows.

“People don’t realize that Center Hill is great during the day in July, especially with football jigs, big crankbaits and even worms,” Tramel said.

Deep-diving crankbaits, like the Strike King 6XD and Norman DD22, “are good options” to provoke a Dog Day bass attack, he said.dd22

Tramel, a mild-mannered 37-year-old accountant, knows a thing or two about angling on Center Hill Lake. “It’s where I learned to fish, for sure,” he said.

Center Hill is an excellent lake to acquire diverse fishing expertise, he said.

“You have to learn all kinds of different techniques here,” he said. “It is a really good lake to do what I like to call ‘power fish’ – throw jigs, and topwater and spinnerbaits. In the winter it gets really clear and requires a lot of finesse.”

Tramel has been racking up tournament wins and big-money finishes for more than a decade on Middle Tennessee lakes.

He’s developed into one of the premier bass-baggers to beat over the course of his career, especially on Center Hill Lake.

Of his 25 career FLW Top 10 finishes, six have been on Center Hill. This year, he took third at the FLW Bass Fishing League’s Music City Division tourney. Back in April he won the American Bass Anglers Ram Truck Open Series tournament and floated home with $5,000 in his creel.

His schooling on Center Hill has served him well on other lakes, too – in particular, Old Hickory.

Tramel blew fish-fixated minds in April 2014 when he weighed in at an ABA tournament with a whopping sack of five smallmouths tipping scales at nearly 27 pounds. Old Hickory isn’t really known for giving up prodigious numbers of bronzebacks, but on that day Tramel hooked at least a dozen that were keeper-sized.

On Center Hill, Tramel said he tends to target his summertime casts at shallow-to-deep drops and “transition banks.” Also, bluffs and gravel points. “Look for places where you can cast shallow and retrieve out to deep water,” he said.

Keep in mind that bass are prone to loiter around deep brush piles, he said.

“Smallmouth seem to like a shallower-sloped bank,” noted Tramel. “They still hold in deeper water, but farther off the shore.”

Smallmouth also tend to change holding-places more often than spotted bass and largemouth, he said.

As a general rule, “moving around a lot” increases your odds of catching fish, he said. “Center Hill Lake is not a place where you tend to find large schools of fish congregating,” Tramel said.

If you catch two or three nice bass in one spot, the action’s probably going to cool off in short order.

“It’s not that you can’t catch more if you sit there long enough – but it’ll probably turn into a really slow day,” he said.

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Chestnut Blight-Fighters Breeding Brighter Future

Tide slowly turning in war against against decimating spores

Grand stands of native chestnut trees, now absent from our forest landscapes, are the stuff of legends.

Hailed in its heyday as the “Redwood of the East,” the once mighty and magnificent North American chestnut was a towering, commonplace presence across woodland countrysides, from the middle of Mississippi throughout Appalachia and New England up into Canada.

American chestnuts thrived in nearly all of Tennessee, save some of the western lowlands.

Throughout its 200 million acre range in the eastern United States, chestnuts provided a source of forage for the entire food chain.

Prior to the tree’s calamitous demise in the early and mid-20th Century, chestnuts were “the single most important food source for a wide variety of wildlife from bears to birds,” according to the Tennessee chapter of the American Chestnut Foundation’s website. It was an “essential component of the entire eastern US ecosystem.”

The wood and nuts served as a staple of survival and prosperity for humans as well. Prized not just as a food source for people and livestock, Chestnut trees were a nearly boundless source of sturdy lumber.

Chestnut is estimated to have at one point been the highest timber-volume tree in Tennessee.

Insidious Interloper Introduced

But nature’s native chestnut bounty is no more in this country.

“Oh mighty, magic chestnut tree, how did you slip away from me?” asked Dolly Parton in a musical ode to the arboreal archetype.

The answer was a foreign invader.

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Dr. Hill Craddock discusses chestnut blight disease characteristics at a field demonstration in Cookeville. The orange-colored blight spores can be seen encasing the trunk of this tree.

A fungus blight imported from across the Pacific Ocean on Oriental varieties of chestnut trees in the late 1800s and early 1900s took hold in New York. And over the course of just a few decades, the relentless pestilence — which was relatively innocuous to the Asian chestnut varieties — devastated the non-resistant American chestnut.

“There is no example of a forest disease that so quickly and completely eliminated its host,” Dr. Hill Craddock, a biology professor and chestnut-breeding expert at the University of Tennessee-Chattanooga, told Center Hill Sun. “It spread very quickly in concentric circles, killing literally billions of trees.”

Craddock said the distinction between “epidemic” and “pandemic” is tragically vital in the tale of the American chestnut tree’s rapid descent toward oblivion.

“This was a true pandemic. There were no unaffected individuals,” he said. “The chestnut blight pandemic may be the worst ecological disaster in the history of North America since the Ice Ages.”

The blight pathogen, which kills back infected trees by scoring and splitting the bark with necrotic cankers, reached Tennessee in the 1930s. By the 1950s, mature American chestnut had been all but obliterated from forests throughout the United States.

However, if there was anything resembling a bright side to the blight plague, it was this: The fungus cankers terminate the tree’s trunk and canopy growth, but the root systems lived on.

And the chestnut is famous for its ability to send up fast-growing new shoots.

“If you walk in the woods today, you can still find chestnut trees sprouting from the base,” said Craddock. “So, therein lies the hope that we can bring them back.”

Craddock, 56, is a celebrity and savant among chestnut restoration enthusiasts. He’s committed his professional life to battling the blight through means of plant breeding and public education about how to engineer a rebound. In a 2004 Smithsonian magazine profile headlined “Chestnutty,” he was described as a “chestnut evangelist.”

This spring, Craddock led a group of regional foresters on a tour of a university chestnut-breeding plot he is managing near Tennessee Tech’s Hyder-Burks Agricultural Pavilion.

“The strategy we’re using is to create a hybrid between the blight-resistant Asian species and the American chestnut,” said Craddock.

Backcrossing to the Future

The breeding process he is using to develop blight-resistant trees is known as “backcrossing.” Parent trees of both Chinese and American are crossed, then back-bred to successive generations to eliminate most of the Chinese tree’s physical characteristics — except for blight resistance.

“If we start with a tree that’s fifty-fifty Chinese-American and we backcross that to an American, we get a tree that is three-quarters American and one-quarter Chinese. When we backcross that generation, then we get a tree that’s seven-eighths American. Backcross that, and then we get a tree that is fifteen-sixteenths American.”

Craddock selects for trees that have the look or “form” of the American chestnut, and also display blight resistance.

“When the trees get up to four or five years old and two or three inches in diameter, we deliberately inoculate the tree with the chestnut blight fungus,” he said.

Trees that show acceptable resistance are used in future crosses, thus bringing forth evermore resistant varieties that are, genetically speaking, very close to native chestnuts.

Seeds from the most resistant strains are then planted in a seed orchard. “In those trees we expect to recover full resistance,” he said.

So, in a nutshell, things are looking up for the iconic giant that once shaded the eastern United States and showered sustenance onto forest floors.

“Ultimate success,” however, is measured not in decades, or even human lifespans, but more like centuries, said Craddock.

“We are talking about ecosystem restoration” he said. “We need a tree that can survive and reproduce on its own under natural conditions. We are hoping to be able to release these trees into the woods in a way that allows natural selection to take over.”

For that to occur, trees must display a level of blight resistance enabling them to survive and reproduce in the wild. “In my lifetime, I think we will have initiated those plantings,” Craddock said.

“A hundred or two hundred years from now, I think we will be able to measure success in another way: if we have naturally reproducing populations of chestnut trees in the forest,” he said.

Interested in learning more about chestnut trees, or obtaining young trees that have been bred for blight-resistance? Contact Dr. Craddock through the American Chestnut Foundation at paul@acf.org, or visit the Tennessee chapter of the American Chestnut Foundation website at tnacf.org.

(Photo at top of page: Krystal Kate Place of Chattanooga is pollinating chestnut flowers. The bags over the blossoms are to prevent pollen pollution.)

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Trophy Browns and Rainbows Sharing Caney With Big Brook Trout

Shad-fattened lunker lurking below Center Hill Dam shatters state record

Some anglers say it’s bad luck to catch a fish on your first cast of the day.

Try telling that to Sasa Krezic.

He actually caught several more fish after that big brook trout gobbled up his introductory baitfish offering below Center Hill Dam’s spillway.

Of course, it was April Fools Day, so maybe all bets were off, superstition-wise. Or maybe the First Cast Curse just doesn’t apply if the catch is big enough.

But it’ll assuredly be that first fish on that lucky first cast that Krezic remembers, and probably for the rest of his life.

As he was wrestling the bruiser ashore, the 27-year-old Nashvillian figured it was “probably a keeper.” But little did Krezic figure he’d also soon be the keeper of a new state record for brook trout: 4 pounds 12 ounces.

Krazic, who spent the first decade of his life in the war-ravaged Balkans, said he actually “got pretty lucky” in getting his name added to the record books.

A friend he was fishing with observed, “That’s a pretty good fish — a nice-sized brook trout.”

Krazic, who’d only ever caught browns and rainbows on the Caney, said he’s seen bigger fish come out of the river. And he wasn’t particularly familiar with the state records, which, for brook trout, was 3 pounds 14 ounces and had been set on the Hiwassee River in 1973.

“I really wouldn’t have known if this other guy hadn’t looked up the old record online on his phone and told me, ‘I think this one probably weighs more’,” Krezic said.

They weighed Krazic’s brookie on a digital fish scale. Then they promptly put in a call to the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

No Joke: Not a Case of Mistaken Identity

Will Collier, a TWRA fish biologist in the area, figured somebody was angling to hook him into a bit of April Fools mischief when he got a call from the agency’s enforcement officer, Tony Cross.

A record-breaking brook trout on the Caney, huh? And the guy caught it on his first cast? You don’t say.

To Collier’s surprise, the fishy story turned out to be legit. And it wasn’t a misidentified brown trout, which he’d alternately suspected. It was indeed a big brookie — almost a pound bigger than the old record.

But the more he thought about it, the more sense it made.

bigbrookie2

YEP, THAT’S A KEEPER. Sasa Krezic of Nashville caught a state record brook trout in the Center HIll Dam spillway on April Fools Day this year.

“Compared to rainbow trout and brown trout, we haven’t put all that many brook trout in,” Collier said. “But if a person was going to catch a state record, it’s not too surprising that it would be by the dam here, where they feed on shad kills and whatnot. He caught it on a minnow, which made perfect sense. Certain times of year the fish are piling up right there, eating those little fish that come from the lake, getting fat in the process.”

There was another curious quirk, or near-quirk, in the tale of April Fools 2016’s catch of the day. Had the fish been just a half-inch shorter, it would have fallen within the Caney Fork’s “protected length range” — which for brooks and rainbows is 14-20 inches.

In that case, it would have been illegal to keep.

“It would have been something to have to write a ticket for a state record fish,” said Collier.

Bumpy Road for Brookies

For TWRA’s chief of fisheries, Frank Fiss, catching wind that a new state record brook trout had been pulled from the Caney Fork was particularly gratifying. And likewise for Andrew Currie, who manages Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery — where the big new state record brookie was reared from egg to a fry before its release, which they estimate was probably three or four years ago.

“It’s been a long time coming,” said Fiss.

Back in the early and mid-2000s, TWRA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which oversees the Dale Hollow hatchery, weren’t keen on stocking the bigger and hardier non-native brook trout strains in Tennessee waters. They feared competition or cross-breeding would jeopardize the smaller and more threatened southern Appalachian brook trout.

“We were not real eager to expand brook trout populations,” said Fiss. “But then we got a better handle on what we had in the mountains — which areas needed protecting, and which areas already had northern brook trout in them.”

They figured they could plant northern brook trout in lower elevation Tennessee rivers where they’d never commingle with native populations.

The Watauga, Clinch and Lower Caney fit the bill. Between 2007 and 2008, stocking commenced in those waters. But it wasn’t an overnight success, as any new fish-stocking initiative tends to involve some trial and error.

The Watauga was the first river where they planted. But the fish all vanished in short order. They tended to run up into the tributaries and disappear, said Fiss. So they scrapped the program there.

On the Clinch River and the Caney Fork, brookies fared much better — particularly early on.

“I remember when we first put them in, I wrote an article saying that maybe in a few years we would have brook trout over 14 inches,” said Fiss. “Then, like the next year, fishing was terrible for brook trout, and I was wishing I’d never written the article.”

Big Stocking Season Predicted for Summer of ’17

Now, though, Fiss is feeling better about the program going forward. As is Currie, who told Center Hill Sun he’s confident that after a few tough years getting good brook trout eggs shipped in, more reliable supplies are lined up.

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Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery manager Andrew Currie surveys fish-rearing raceways in Clay County, TN. Currie manages the facility, which raises brown, rainbow and brook trout for stocking in regional waters. Netting hung above the pools helps reduce predation loss to fish-feasting birds.

Last year no brook trout were stocked in the Caney because the eggs, which come from Utah, were in such short supply. And this year the Dale Hollow hatchery will only release about 5,000 brookies. But a lot more are in the early stages of development. In order to enhance their chances of survival in the wild, the fish are usually 16-18 months old and nine inches long when they’re released, Currie said.

Next summer’s goal is 100,000 brook trout, Currie said. Barring unforeseen hazards and snags, a good portion of those will ultimately find their way to the Caney Fork.

In the first months of their lives, brook trout are particularly susceptible to adverse water quality, especially nitrogen supersaturation, said Currie. But their survivability substantially improves once they’re big enough for transport to the outdoor concrete raceways — to the point that they’re hardier even than the hatchery rainbows and browns.

“Once they go outside, they outperform everything,” said Currie. “Once they get up to about three inches, they do well. It is getting them there that’s the difficulty.”

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Pest Control, Property-Rights Protection Top Woodland-Owner Issues

Note to Campers: Buying local firewood helps keep bad bugs at bay

Public policy issues wax and wane in importance among rural landowners. But some topics always tend to hover at the top of the list of concerns for families invested in woodland property.

For nearly three decades, the National Woodland Owners Association has been annually polling its members around the country for the main issues on their minds. Three themes always on the radar are taxes, property rights and controlling the spread of damaging insects.

Timberland owners spend a lot of time fretting that local government officials will try to balance tight budgets in part by raising woodland property taxes, said Keith Argow, NWOA’s president.

“All politics and forestry is local, and landowners must pay attention to new proposals,” Argow writes in the spring 2016 issue of National Woodlands, the association’s quarterly forestry magazine. “Society benefits in multiple ways from healthy forests, including clean water, wildlife habitat, a reliable wood supply for business and open space. As a rule of thumb, woodland tax rates should be no higher than $3/acre/year.”

Battles over property rights protection are often byproducts of urban-rural divides, both physical and philosophical. Increasing urbanization is a persistent issue of concern for family forestland owners, who fear diminishing public appreciation for working rural landscapes.

“As rural America continues to transform from working farms and forests to homesites without working landscapes, the character of the neighborhood changes,” said Argow. “Eventually the composition of state and local elected officials changes too. The elected officials either reflect opinion of the new arrivals, or they are soon out of office.”

NWOA tends to encourage “right-to-practice-forestry” laws at the state level to guard against restrictive local ordinances that discourage even responsible timber harvesting.

Another matter about which woodland managers are keenly alert is “bad bugs and diseases,” said Argow.

Real and present dangers to Tennessee forests include gypsy moth, pine beetles, emerald ash borer, hemlock woolly adelgid and thousand-cankers disease, which is a fungus transmitted to black walnut trees by a twig beetle.

Preventing infestation tends to be key. The invidious insects like to hitch free rides into uncontaminated forests whenever they can. Of particular concern is the transport firewood, even within the state.

“People should try to keep it as local as they can, at least within their home county,” said Tyler Wakefield, a state forester for Cannon, Coffee, DeKalb, Warren Counties. “We certainly don’t want people hauling firewood across the state to go camping.”

The Tennessee Department of Forestry advises: “Don’t bring firewood along for camping trips; get the wood from a local source. Don’t bring wood home with you.”

To check out the National Woodland Owners Association’s Top 10 list of tree-growers’ issues, visit http://woodlandowners.org/.

Argow noted that the Tennessee Woodland Association, which is affiliated with NWOA, is looking to sign up volunteers to promote public awareness about forest health issues in the Volunteer State. Contact him at argow@cs.net for details.

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Buffalo at Home Roaming TN Highland Range

America’s newest national symbol is on majestic display at Lazy G Ranch in Putnam County

Tennessee’s Upper Cumberland region probably isn’t the first place that comes to mind when people think of the great American buffalo.

But prior to the demolition of wild bison herds across this country in the latter 19th Century, the massive, magnificent beasts wandered vast sweeps of the continent — not just the Great Plains and Mountain West.

The historical range of Bison bison bison — which is the buffalo’s distinctive scientifically accurate name — encompassed an immense expanse of the North American interior, from Alaska to Alabama and even into the Florida panhandle.

Buffalo Valley, just off the I-40 Center Hill Dam exit, is said for example to have gotten its name because the area served as a congregating point for migrating bands of bison meandering down to water in the Caney Fork.

The multitude of bison that once ranged this country at the end of the 18th Century, and the magnitude of their demise in the century that followed, is almost impossible for the modern American mind to grasp.

More than 40 million buffalo are estimated to have roamed what’s now the Lower 48 and upper Mexico two centuries ago, and tens of million more lived north of the U.S. border. In less than 50 years in the late 1800s, buffalo numbers plummeted to near extinction.

“To go from tens of millions of wild buffalo down to thousands — that’s something that is hard to comprehend,” says Eddie Gaw, who runs a herd of aboubisonbwt 30 bison on his Lazy G Ranch a few miles north of Cookeville on Hwy 135.

Today roughly half a million bison exist in America, on both public and private lands. Wild herds are managed by fish and game agencies in 11 states, including the Land Between the Lakes. That’s far, far fewer than the wild wandering herds of centuries past that the Lewis and Clark journals said “darkened the whole plains.”

But all the same, it’s an undeniable turnabout in the bison’s fortunes. And that was brought about by a growing popular appreciation for buffalo, coupled with efforts to preserve the colossal even-toed ungulate’s iconic place in the country’s imagination by ensuring it continues to exist on its landscapes.

Gaw’s buffalo serve as a living local monument to an ongoing conservation triumph. But to him, raising bison in the 21st Century is about planning for the future as much or more than just remembering the past.

Safeguarding a Living Symbol

The bison’s rebound has bisonwebbabymommabeen commemorated this year with its formal recognition as an official symbol of the United States.

In April, Congress passed the National Bison Legacy Act, which designates the buffalo as the “national mammal.” President Obama signed the Act into law May 9.

The Act declares that “bison are considered a historical symbol of the United States.” Buffalo were “integrally linked with the economic and spiritual lives of many Indian tribes through trade and sacred ceremonies,” the measure goes on.

Furthermore, buffalo historically shaped the terrain they roamed, which aided in the health and survival of other native plant and animal species. “Bison can play an important role in improving the types of grasses found in landscapes to the benefit of grasslands,” the Act reads.

Passage of the Bison Legacy Act marked the climax to a half-decade-long effort by the Vote Bison Coalition, a collection of more than 60 buffalo-advocating businesses, ranchers and nonprofit groups. A statement on the coalition’s website described Congress’s approval of the Act as “a great milestone for an animal that has played a central role in America’s history and culture.”

Marketing Sustainable Meat

The Bison Legacy Act specifically recognizes early efforts by private ranchers in rescuing the buffalo from oblivion.

“A small group of ranchers helped save bison from extinction in the late 1800s by gathering the remnants of the decimated herds,” declares the Act, which also expresses that “bison hold significant economic value for private producers and rural communities.”

Today, bison that are “under the stewardship of private producers” are responsible for “creating jobs and providing a sustainable and healthy meat source contributing to the food security of the United States,” the Act declares.

Dedicated to promoting bison’s potential as a source of beauty, pride and healthy red-meat protein, the National Bison Association is among the groups delighted to see the bison given official national significance along with the bald eagle and the oak, which was declared America’s National Tree in 2004.

“There has never been a national mammal,” said the association’s assistant director, Jim Matheson. “Bison being the largest mammal on the continent, and also probably the greatest conservation success story of America. So we see it as a great fit.”

Some of the bison at the Lazy G Ranch, particularly non-dominant bulls, are slaughtered for meat and hides. But Gaw’s foremost mission is raising awareness. He’s hopeful a charge of bison-promoting publicity related to the National Mammal classification will send more folks his direction for a firsthand look at the country’s newest symbol.

Gaw has set aside about half of his 150 acre spread of rolling grassy pasture for his bison. Over time, he’d like to more than double the size of the herd to around 75, and expand their range to most or all the ranch’s pastureland.

Awesome to Behold

Already, it is not uncommon to see more than a dozen cars pull into his ranch driveway on a Saturday to gaze while the buffalo graze.

What is it about bison that people find so captivating?

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“Blizzard” is a rare white bison. His owner, Eddie Gaw, bought him as a calf two years ago. Like a lot of privately owned buffalo in America, Blizzard’s genetic profile probably includes some trace DNA remnants of beef-cow. Mr. Gaw is a member of the National Bison Association, which opposes ranchers purposefully cross-breeding buffalo with cattle.

“Just look at them,” says Gaw. The two words that typically spring to people’s minds when viewing bison — especially up close — are “powerful” and “majestic.”

That, and “big,” of course.

Bulls can weigh more than a ton and stand six-and-a-half feet tall at their hulking shoulders, The horns on their mammoth, wooly heads — worn by males and females alike — can grow two feet long. These burly beasts seem not far removed from the Ice Age.

Bison are startlingly agile and fast. “Buffalo can jump six feet vertical. Anything they can lay their chin on, they can jump,” Gaw said. And they can outrun a horse over sustained distances.

Just looking at them is precisely what Gaw wants more people to do at his ranch. He encourages visitors to stop and simply behold the grand critters.

Their stately grace is undeniable, whether ambling slowly along munching at turf, laying about ruminating their cuds, loping over a hill in a rumbling formation, or blithely bathing in a dirt wallow, which Gaw said they do to ward away bugs.

“A lot of people just don’t really know much about buffalo,” he said. “Anytime I see people down by the road watching them, especially if they’ve got kids, I like to go down and talk to them, and maybe educate them a little.”

Gaw is happy to entertain fibisonwebwarningeld trip buses of youngsters and adults. Residents of the Fairfield Glade Retirement Community in Cumberland County were excited to visit after reading a story in the Crossville Chronicle a couple years back about a rare white buffalo calf that Gaw had acquired from South Dakota.

“Blizzard,” as the blond young bull was christened, is a baby no more. But he still attracts an audience, including American Indians for whom a white bison holds particularly solemn spiritual significance.

Gaw said Indians have come to his ranch and sat on the grass for hours at a time meditating on the sight of Blizzard and the rest of the herd. “I’ve even had them write me letters asking for locks of hair,” he said. “If they have buffalo hair in their house, it’s Good Medicine.”Google ChromeScreenSnapz005

One of the best viewing times to watch the bison on Gaw’s ranch is as the afternoon wanes. That’s when they tend to get particularly lively and animated, calves and adults alike.

“In the evening, sometimes they’ll get to running and run the whole area of their field,” said Gaw. “They’re liable to do it for 30 minutes, chasing each other just like they are playing.”

If you’d like to call ahead to book a guided visit, call Eddie Gaw at 931-528-1681. Look them up on Facebook at Lazy G Ranch TN. The ranch address is 6070 Dodson Branch Rd (Hwy 135), which is about five miles north of TTU’s Hooper Eblen Center.